Overview#Informed Consent is given by a person who has a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action. Health Care, Informed Consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person. A health care provider may ask a patient to consent to receive therapy before providing it, or a clinical researcher may ask a research participant before enrolling that person into a clinical trial. Informed Consent is collected according to guidelines from the fields of medical ethics and research ethics.
An Informed Consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and consequences of an action. To give informed consent, the individual concerned must have adequate reasoning faculties and be in possession of all relevant facts. Impairments to reasoning and judgment that may prevent Informed Consent include basic intellectual or emotional immaturity, high levels of stress such as PTSD or a severe intellectual disability, severe mental illness, intoxication, severe sleep deprivation, Alzheimer's disease, or being in a coma.
Some acts can take place because of a lack of Informed Consent. In cases where an individual is considered unable to give informed consent, another person is generally authorized to give consent on his behalf, e.g., parents or legal guardians of a child (though in this circumstance the child may be required to provide informed assent) and conservators for the mentally ill.
In cases where an individual is provided insufficient information to form a reasoned decision, serious ethical issues arise. Such cases in a clinical trial in medical research are anticipated and prevented by an ethics committee or Institutional Review Board.
- (1) disclosing to potential research subjects information needed to make an informed decision;
- (2) facilitating the understanding of what has been disclosed;
- (3) promoting the voluntariness of the decision about whether or not to participate in the research.