ARPANET became the Internet and is really and Abbreviation for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation decided to create a computer network that was independent of centralized command and control, and would thus be able to withstand a nuclear attack that targets such centralized hubs. In August 1964, he published an eleven-volume memorandum for the RAND Corporation outlining his research.[2] Baran’s network was based on a technology called Packet switching that allows messages to break themselves apart into small fragments. Each fragment, or packet, is able to find its own way to its destination. Once there, the packets reassemble to create the original message.

In 1969, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the United States Department of Defense started the ARPANET, the first network to use Baran’s Packet switching technology.

The ARPANET allowed academics to share resources and transfer files. In its early years, the ARPANET (later renamed DARPAnet) existed unnoticed by the outside world, with only a few hundred participating computers, or “hosts.”

All addressing for this network was maintained by a single machine located at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo Park, California. By 1984 the network had grown larger. Paul Mockapetris invented a new addressing scheme, this one Decentralized system, called the Domain Name System (DNS).

Intergalactic Computer Network was "term" and a computer networking concept used in ARPA by J.C.R. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) in the early 1960s.

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