Encapsulation is one of the four fundamentals of Object-oriented Programming

Encapsulation refers to the bundling of data with the methods that operate on that data.

Encapsulation is used to hide the values or state of a Structured data object inside a class, preventing unauthorized parties' direct access to them. Publicly accessible methods are generally provided in the class (so-called getters and setters) to access the values, and other client classes call these methods to retrieve and modify the values within the object.[1]

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