Energy Density

Required Information#

Useful Nuclear Particles

True energy densities#

Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density

Storage typeEnergy density by mass (MJ/kg)Energy density by volumePeak recovery efficiency %Practical Recovery Efficiency %
Mass-energy equivalence89,876,000,000
Binding energy of Helium-4 nucleus683,000,000857,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (8.57x1024)
Nuclear fusion of hydrogen (energy from the sun)645,000,000
Deuterium-Tritium fusion337,000,000
Nuclear fission (of 100% U-235) (Used in nuclear power plants)88,250,0001,500,000,000
Natural uranium (99.3% U238, 0.7% U235) in fast breeder reactor[7]24,000,000 50%
Enriched uranium (3.5% U235) in light water reactor3,456,00030%
Hf-178m2 isomer1,326,00017,649,060
Natural uranium (0.7% U235) in light water reactor443,00030%
Ta-180m isomer41,340689,964
Specific orbital energy of Low Earth orbit33 (approx.)
Cl2O7 + CH4 - computed17.4
Cl2O7 decomposition - computed12.2
Octanitrocubane explosive - computed8.517
Tetranitrotetrahedrane explosive - computed8.3
Heptanitrocubane explosive - computed8.2
Dinitroacetylene explosive - computed7.9
Sodium (reacted with chlorine)7.0349
Tetranitrocubane explosive - computed6.95
Ammonal (Al+NH4NO3 oxidizer)6.912.7
Tetranitromethane + hydrazine bipropellant - computed6.6
Hexanitrobenzene explosive - computed6.5
Octogen explosive - computed6.3
TNTin Kinney, G.F.; K.J. Graham (1985). Explosive shocks in air. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-15147-8. 4.6106.92
Copper Thermite (Al + CuO as oxidizer)4.1320.9
Thermite (powder Al + Fe2O3 as oxidizer)4.0018.4
Hydrogen peroxide decomposition (as monopropellant)2.73.8
Lithium ion battery with nanowires25.42.54-2.72?29 95%[8]
Lithium thionyl chloride battery [9]2.5
Water 220.64 bar, 373.8°C1.9680.708
Kinetic energy penetrator1.91.9-3.43030-54
Fluoride ion battery [10]1.71.7-(?)2.8(?)2.8(?)
Regenerative Fuel Cell (fuel cell with internal Hydrogen reservoir used much as a battery)1.62 [11]sm=n
Hydrazine(toxic) decomposition (as monopropellant)1.61.6
Ammonium nitrate decomposition (as monopropellant)1.42.5
Zinc-air battery1.33
Capacitor by EEStor (claimed prototype capacity)1.0 [12]2.18
Thermal energy storage(Molten Salt)11 approx.
Molecular spring11 approx.
Sodium-sulfur battery 1.23 [13] 85%[14]
Liquid nitrogen0.77[1]0.62
Lithium ion battery[2]0.540.54–0.720.90.9–1.9 95%[15]
Lithium sulphur battery0.540.54-1.44
compressed air at 300 bar (at 12°C), without container0.5120.16
Flywheel0.51-0.15%/10s [16]
5.56 × 45 mm NATO bullet0.40.4-
Zn-air batteries0.40.40 to
Zinc-bromine flow battery0.270.27–0.306 [17]
Compressed air at 20 bar (at 12°C), without container0.270.01 64%[18]
NiMH Battery0.22
NiCd Battery0.140.14-0.2280% [19]
Lead acid battery0.090.09–0.11
Compressed air in fiber-wound bottle at 200 bar (at 24°C)0.140.06
Vanadium redox battery0.09 [20]0.1188 7070-75%
Vanadium bromide redox battery0.18 [21]0.252 81%
compressed air in steel bottle at 200 bar (at 24°C)0.040.1
Capacitor Ultracapacitor0.0206 [22]0.050 [23]
Capacitor Supercapacitor0.01 98.5%90%[24]
Capacitor0.002 [25]
Water at 100 m dam height0.0010.001 8585-90%[26]
Spring power (clock spring), torsion spring0.0003 [27]0.0006
Liquid hydrogenclarification needed14310.1
Compressed gaseous hydrogen at 700 bar [28]clarification needed1435.6
Gaseous hydrogen at room temperaturecitation needed1430.01079
Beryllium (toxic) (burned in air)67.6125.1
Lithium borohydride (burned in air)65.243.4
Boron [29] (burned in air)58.9137.8
Methane (1.013bar, 15°C) (burned in air)55.60.0378
Natural gas (burned in air)53.6[3]10
LPG propane (burned in air)[4]49.625.3
LPG butane (burned in air)[4]49.127.7
Diesel fuel/residential heating oil (burned in air)[4]46.237.3
Polyethylene plastic46.3[5]42.6
Polypropylene plastic46.4[5]41.7
Gasohol E10 (10% ethanol 90% gasoline by volume)43.5433.72
Gasohol E85 (85% ethanol 10% gasoline by volume)33.125.65
Lithium (burned in air)43.123.0
Jet A aviation fuel [30] / kerosene42.833
Biodiesel oil (vegetable oil)42.2033
DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran)42 [31]37.8
Crude oil (according to the definition of ton of oil equivalent)clarification needed46.337[3]
Polystyrene plastic41.4[5]43.5
Body fat metabolism38352222-26%[32]
Graphite (burned in air)32.772.9
coal Anthracite32.572.43636%
Silicon (burned in air)[33]32.275.1
Aluminum (burned in air)31.083.8
Polyester plastic26.0 [5]35.6
Magnesium (burned in air)24.743.0
coal Bituminous [34]2420
PET plastic23.5 (impure) [35]
Hydrazine (toxic) combusted to N2+H2O19.519.3
Liquid ammonia (combusted to N2+H2O)18.611.5
PVC plastic (improper combustion toxic)clarification needed18.0[5]25.2
Sugars, carbohydrates & protein metabolism1726.2(dextrose)2222-26% [36]
coal Lignitecitation needed14.0 (to 19)
Calcium (burned in air)citation needed15.924.6
Dry cowdung and cameldung15.5 [37]
Wood6.0 (to 17)
Sodium (burned to wet sodium hydroxide)13.312.8
Household waste8.0 (to 11)[6][7]
Sodium (burned to dry sodium oxide)9.18.8
Zinc (burned in air)5.338.0
Teflon plastic (combustion toxic, but flame retardant)5.111.2
iron (burned to iron(III) oxide)5.240.68
iron (burned to iron(II) oxide)4.938.2

Energy-Releasing Reactions#

Sample ReactionC + O2 -> CO2n + U-235 -> Ba-143 + Kr-91 + 2 nH-2 + H-3 -> He-4 + n
Typical Inputs (to Power Plant)Bituminous CoalUO2 (3% U-235 + 97% U-238)Deuterium & Lithium
Typical Reaction Temperature (K)70010001,000,000,000
Energy Released per kg of Fuel (J/kg)370,000,00021,000,000,000,000340,000,000,000,000

OpenEI Transparent Cost Database#

Plant TypeLevelized Cost(USD/MWh)Overnight Capital Cost(1000xUSD/kW)Fixed Operating Cost(USD/kW)Variable Operating Cost (USD/MWh)Capacity Factor (%)
Wind, onshore601.5710.956.4538
Wind, offshore 1003.0514.2821.1843
Solar PV2805.1032.03021
Solar CSP2005.7455.72.1031.16
Geothermal Hydrothermal602.82155.41085
Blind Geothermal1006.85222.98095
Enhanced Geothermal1307.00199.693084.6
Small Hydropower1404.50130050
Fuel Cell1504.645.6547.9295
Natural Gas Combustion Turbine705.7410.533.5780
Coal, pulverized, scrubbed501.9227.503.7084.6
Coal, pulverized, unscrubbed40 4.4584.6
Coal, integrated gasification combined cycle803.1738.677.2580.96

More Information#

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