Overview#Low-Power and Lossy Network (LLN) The ROLL (Routing Over Low-Power and Lossy) terminology document RFC 7102 defines LLNs as follows:
Low-Power and Lossy Network. Typically composed of many embedded devices with limited power, memory, and processing resources interconnected by a variety of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4 or low-power Wi-Fi. There is a wide scope of application areas for LLNs, including industrial monitoring, building automation (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, access control, fire), connected home, health care, environmental monitoring, urban sensor networks, energy management, assets tracking, and refrigeration.
RFC 7228 further says, Low-Power and Lossy Network often exhibit considerable loss at the Physical Layer, with significant variability of the delivery rate, and some short-term unreliability, coupled with some medium-term stability that makes it worthwhile to both construct directed acyclic graphs that are medium-term stable for routing and do measurements on the edges such as Expected Transmission Count (ETX) RFC 6551. Not all LLNs comprise low-power nodes RPL-DEPLOYMENT.
Low-Power and Lossy Networks typically are composed of Constrained Nodes; this leads to the design of operation modes such as the "non-storing mode" defined by RPL (the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks RFC 6550). So, in the terminology of the present document, an LLN is a Constrained Node Constrained Network with certain network characteristics, which include constraints on the network as well.