Overview#Padded (padding) in Cryptography and Encoding is used in Algorithms by adding Padding bits to reach a boundary. (usually an Octet boundary using null Padded)
When calculating H(secret + data), the string (secret + data) is padded with a '1' bit and some number of '0' bits, followed by the length of the string. That is, in hex, the padding is a 0x80 byte followed by some number of 0x00 bytes and then the length. The number of 0x00 bytes, the number of bytes reserved for the length, and the way the length is encoded, depends on the particular algorithm and blocksize.
With most algorithms (including MD4, MD5, RIPEMD-160, SHA-0, SHA-1, and SHA-256), the message is Padded until its length is congruent to 56 bytes (mod 64). Or, to put it another way, it's padded until the length is 8 bytes less than a full (64-byte) block (the 8 bytes being size of the encoded length field). There are two hashes implemented in hash_extender that don't use these values: SHA-512 uses a 128-byte block size and reserves 16 bytes for the length field, and WHIRLPOOL uses a 64-byte block size and reserves 32 bytes for the length field.
Padded Hash Functions#Hash Functions pad — by adding a 1 bit, followed by a bunch of 0 bits, then the length. So in bytes it looks like:
\x80\x00\x00\x00 ... <length>
Padded Block Ciphers#Block Ciphers appear to use PKCS7 for padding which says that the value to pad with is the number of bytes of padding that are required. So, if the blocksize is 8 bytes and we have the string "ABC", it would be padded as:
ABC\x05\x05\x05\x05\x05If we had "ABCDEFG", with padding it would become:
Additionally, if the string is a multiple of the blocksize, an empty block of only padding is appended.
This may sound weird — why use padding when you don't need it? — but it turns out that you couldn't otherwise distinguish, for example, the string "ABCDEFG\x01" from "ABCDEFG" (the "\x01" at the end looks like padding, but in reality it's part of the message).
Therefore, "ABCDEFGH", with padding, would become:
More Information#There might be more information for this subject on one of the following:
- Block Cipher Mode
- Certificate Algorithm ID
- Ciphertext stealing
- LM hash
- Merkle-Damgard construction
- Padding oracle
- [#1] - Everything you need to know about hash length extension attacks - based on information obtained 2018-08-28-