Physical Layer


Physical Layer is a Communication Layers and conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack.

OSI-Model Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications of the data connection.

Physical Layer defines the relationship between a device and a physical transmission medium (e.g., a copper or fiber optical cable, radio frequency). Physical Layer includes the layout of pins, voltages, line impedance, Cable Connection specifications, signal timing and similar characteristics for connected devices and frequency (5 GHz or 2.4 GHz etc.) for wireless devices.

Physical Layer is responsible for transmission and reception of unstructured raw data in a physical medium.

Physical Layer may define transmission mode as simplex, half duplex, and full duplex. It defines the Network topology as BUS, mesh, or ring being some of the most common.

Physical Layer of Parallel SCSI operates in this layer, as do the Physical Layers of Ethernet and other local Area Networks, such as Token Ring, FDDI, ITU-T G.hn, and IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), as well as Personal Area Networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.

Physical Layer is the layer of low-level Network devices, such as some Network hubs, cabling, and Network Repeaters.

Physical Layer is never concerned with protocols or other such higher-layer items. Examples of hardware in this layer are network adapters, Network Repeaters, Network hubs, modems, and fiber media converters.

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