Overview#SAE International Levels of Driving Automation Issued January 2014, SAE international’s J3016 provides a common taxonomy and definitions for automated driving in order to simplify communication and facilitate collaboration within technical and policy domains. It defines more than a dozen key terms, including those italicized below, and provides full descriptions and examples for each level.
The report’s six levels of Autonomous Automobile driving automation span from no automation to full automation. A key distinction is between level 2, where the human driver performs part of the dynamic driving task, and level 3, where the automated driving system performs the entire dynamic driving task.
These levels are descriptive rather than normative and technical rather than legal. They imply no particular order of market introduction.
Elements indicate minimum rather than maximum system capabilities for each level. A particular vehicle may have multiple driving automation features such that it could operate at different levels depending upon the feature(s) that are engaged.
System refers to the driver assistance system, combination of driver assistance systems, or automated driving system. Excluded are warning and momentary intervention systems, which do not automate any part of the dynamic driving task on a sustained basis and therefore do not change the human driver’s role in performing the dynamic driving task.
|SAE Level||Name||Narrative Definition||Execution of Steering and Acceleration/Deceleration||Monitoring of Driving Environment||Fallback Performance of Dynamic Driving Task||System Capability (Driving Modes)|
|0||No Automation||the full-time performance by the human driver of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even when enhanced by warning or intervention systems||Human driver||Human driver||Human driver||n/a|
|1||Drive Assistance||the driving mode-specific execution by a driver assistance system of either steering or acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving environment and with the expectation that the human driver perform all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task||Human driver and system||Human driver||Human driver||Some driving modes|
|2||Partial Automation||the driving mode-specific execution by one or more driver assistance systems of both steering and acceleration/deceleration using information about the driving environment and with the expectation that the human driver perform all remaining aspects of the dynamic driving task||System||Human driver||Human driver||Some driving modes|
|3||Conditional Automation||the driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene||System||System||Human driver||Some driving modes|
|4||High Automation||the driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene||System||System||System||Many driving modes|
|5||Full Automation||the full-time performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task under all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver||System||System||System||All driving modes|