Every transistor has a unique quantum fingerprint—but can it be used as a form of ID? As trap sites are basically tiny defects that are randomly distributed in an uncontrollable way during fabrication, the number, location, and energy levels of trap sites differ for every transistor. As a result, single-electron effects lead to a unique modification in the current-voltage characteristics, effectively giving each transistor a unique "fingerprint."
Implies that every bit flip could be tracked. The article says, As the physicists explain, the fingerprint of an electronic device can be thought of as a Physically Unclonable Function (PUF).
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